A study from an Indian university has said that e-cigarettes and vaping has less health and safety concerns than risks posed by conventional e-cigarettes, despite the national Government’s continual vaping cautions. Conducted by The North East Hills University, the study dealt only with factual audits of scientific literature published on the issue of e-cigarettes as a replacement for conventional cigarettes. The study wrote: "Our systematic meta-analysis of published literature compares the health and safety aspects of vaping using ENDS (Electronic Nicotine Delivery System) with smoking conventional cigarettes. We find that ENDS have minimum health and safety concerns compared to the high risks associated with conventional cigarettes." Its findings, published recently on The Economic Times, the study also found that people who want to quit smoking should consider vaping as an alternative source of nicotine. Recently, an Italian e-cig study by the University of Catania found no vaping damage in its three-year-long research. Riccardo Polosa, Director at the University of Catania, concluded: "There was no evidence of health concerns associated with long-term use of e-cigarettes in the relatively young users who did not smoke tobacco." "No pathological findings could be identified on HRCT of the lungs and no respiratory symptoms were consistently reported in the e-cigarette users." The two overseas studies seem to mirror some of the findings by e-cigarette and vaping researchers in the UK. Public Health England have similarly concluded that e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes, and have even encouraged the NHS to prescribe e-cigs. Despite this, lawmakers in Europe, which currently govern the laws around tobacco products via the Tobacco Products Directive, have imposed regulation on e-cigarette products, marketing and their use.