Last year, the group that regulates vaping in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration, tried to ban over 7000 e-liquid flavours, arguing that the flavours appeal to young people and that the long-term effects of vaping are largely unknown. Annually, smoking costs the US economy over $300 according to government figures, as cigarettes kill almost half a million people every year prematurely. Moreover, around 40,000 die every year from second-hand smoke. A study from Boston University School for Public Health has said that bystanders are unlikely to be harmed by second hand vaping. John Buckell of Yale University with his team launched research into the smoking habits of 2031 American adults and recent quitters to find out specific smoking statistics. The study also looked into potential effects of FDA regulation, including scenarios involving menthol cigarette bans, e-liquid flavour bans and more. The study found that the FDA’s proposed ban would increase the number of smokers, with 8.3% of vapers switching back to smoking, and only 3 quitting altogether. A recent report found that switching to e-cigs could cause fewer premature deaths.