According to a study analysing the level of dangerous and cancer-causing substances in the human body, e-cigs are far safer and less toxic than traditional cigarettes. The study followed smokers for 6 months, comparing those who quit to use e-cigarettes or another nicotine replacement therapy with those who continued smoking traditional cigarettes. The study found that those who had quit had much lower levels of toxins in their urine and saliva. Lion Shahab, a epidemiology specialist and public health expert from University College London led the work, commenting: “Our study adds to existing evidence showing that e-cigarettes and NRT are far safer than smoking, and suggests that there is a very low risk associated with their long-term use.” It should be noted that those who switched to e-cigs or nicotine replacement therapies but did not quit smoking completely did not see the same fall in toxins as those who switched completely, reaffirming the notion that e-cigs are healthier than regular cigarettes and illustrating their health benefits. “Switching to e-cigarettes can significantly reduce harm to smokers, with greatly reduced exposure to carcinogens and toxins,” said Kevin Fenton, national director of health and wellbeing for Public Health England. “The findings also make clear that the benefit is only realised if people stop smoking completely and make a total switch. “The best thing a smoker can do, for themselves and those around them, is to quit now, completely and forever.” A recent report reaffirmed the notion that e-cigarettes are not a gateway to smoking and another study found that vaping doubles a smoker's chances of quitting.